Spatial statistics & image
The following are metasites to vast resources in the areas of pattern recognition, classification,
perceptrons, machine vision and learning, data mining, and image
Toolkits for manipulating images &
Toolkits for creating and manipulating
- AI-GEOSTATS software &
This is a very large metasite operated by
the European Comission Joint Research Centre providing extensive
links to software used in geostatistics,
geographic information systems, landscape analysis, and
related fields. The most commonly used method is kriging, giving
optimal prediction and extrapolation of 2- and 3-dimensional
unevenly-spaced data, including quantitative estimation of the
uncertainty at each point. Examples of the codes linked by AI-GEOSTATS
Large package in C designed for
hydrogeologists histograms and plots, varograms and cross-variograms,
jackknifing uncertainty estimates, kriging, 3-dimensional visualization
of scattered data.
- Geographic Resources Analysis
Support System (GRASS)
Comprehensive Geographic Information System
(GIS) used for geospatial data management and analysis, image
processing, graphics/maps production, spatial modeling, and
- Generic Mapping Tools (GMT)
50 UNIX tools for 2- and 3-dimensional datasets with filtering, spline
and nearest neighbor estimation, filtering, many projections and
contouring. Produces EPS illustrations.
- Geostatistical Software Library (GSLIB)
code under UNIX for 2- and 3-dimensional geostatistics including many
krigings with uncertainties estimated by simulated annealing,
cross-validation and jackknifing. PostScript outputs.
Clustering and classification of
spatial data based on EM Algorithm implementation of a penalized
likelihood statistic. Code in C.
Vision source codes
Impressive metasite with links to many
image processing packages
including: SatherVision (object oriented environment); SUSAN algorithms
(structure-preseving smoothing, edge/corner detection); GSnake (contour
modeling, extraction/detection), Object Recognition Toolkit
(progressive edge detection); Steerable Pyramid (multiscale,
multiorientation wavelet-based image decomposition); MMach
(mathematical morphology toolbox within Khoros, with dilation and
erosion); KLT (feature tracker for registration of overlapping images);
MeasTex (texture classification). Provides links to toolkits within
specific environments (KHOROS, X11/Motif, Vista, Tcl/Tk, MatLab,
Macintosh, OpenGL), tool libraries for specific image formats (JPEG,
TIFF, MPEG), and codes for image synthesis by ray tracing.
Image Processing Reference>
Tutorial materials in image
processing and machine vision
concentrating on ~50 image processing operations: image arithmetic,
geometric operations; shape analysis; smoothing,
denoising, Fourier and other digital filters; edge and feature
detection and classification; dilation erosion, segmentation and
skeletonization: distance, Fourier and Hough transforms. HIPR
provides information, Java demonstrations, student exercises, image
library, detailed glossary & index, bibliography and
software. From the Dept. of Artificial Intelligence at the
University of Edinburgh.
Site providing information and software relating to
morphometrics including: multivariate regression of shape and unwarping
of images using thin-plate splines; N-dimensional image rotation and
superimposition; shape analysis using landmarks; outline detection;
analysis of outlines using Fourier analysis, eigenshape analysis and
fractal analysis; image enhancements; and more. From The
Biological Sciences at SUNY Stony Brook.
A library of R modules for statistical analysis of
spatial point processes. Includes simulation, summary statistics (empty
space, nearest neighbour, Ripley's K, J, and pair correlation
functions), maximum-likelihood parametric modelling (inhomogeneous
Poisson, Strauss, pairwise interaction, and user specified processes).
By Adrian Baddeley of the Univ. Western Australia.
Collection of methods in C for statistical pattern
through classification of multidimensional continuous features.
Includes several classifier paradigms (k-nearest neighbor, radial basis
function network, Parzen window, Q* algorithm), feature selection
strategies and criteria (estimated minimal error probability,
inter-class distance, probabilistic distance), feature extraction
(inear discriminant analysis, principal component analysis, Sammon
mapping), cross-validation error estimation and more.
(N-PoinT spatial statistics)
Fast implementation of n-point spatial statistics using KD
Includes 2-point correlation function, pruned trees, Developed
for astronomy by the
Auton Project (Carnegie-Mellon University) and the PiCA Collaboration.
Highly efficient Matlab and Fortran toolbox for computing
simultaneous and conditional spatial autoregressions and mixed
regressive spatially autoregressive models, produced by K. Pace of the
Dept. of Finance at Lousiana State University.
Markov random field simulation
GMRFsim is a group of C-routines for the fast and exact
simulations of general Gaussian random fields on a 2-dimensional
lattice and general graph, provided by H. Rue of the Norwegian
Institute of Technology. It may be useful both to compare with an
observed image or as step in building Bayesian spatial models.
for stochastic geometry
Codes by Dietrich Stoyan, author of "Stochastic geometry &
its applications" (1995): Voronoi 1.0 for 3-dimensional tessellations,
STG 4.1 for the simulation and statistical analysis of several models
of stochastic geometry; and programs for stereology.
ADS is a sub-package associated with the multivariate analysis
system ADE-4 with
multiscale aanalysis and graphical display of spatial point patterns
based on Ripley's function K(r).
Computes voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations.
Dirichlet tessellation and Delaunay triangulation of spatial
points. Bu T. R. Turner of University of New Brunswick.
- Minimum spanning tree
Three short codes for the calculation, printing and updating
minimum spanning tree of a multivariate dataset from the journal
Applied Statistics are available here, here and here.